Philosophy was divided into three major branches:

  • Natural philosophy(“physics”) was the study of the physical world (physis, lit: nature);
  • Moral philosophy(“ethics”) was the study of goodness, right and wrong, beauty, justice and virtue (ethos, lit: custom);
  • Metaphysical philosophy(“logos”) was the study of existence, causation, Godlogicforms and other abstract objects (“meta-physika” lit: “what comes after physics”).

Natural philosophy has split into the various natural sciences, especially astronomy, physics, chemistry, biology and cosmology. Moral philosophy has birthed the social sciences, but still includes value theory (including aesthetics, ethics, political philosophy, etc.). Metaphysical philosophy has birthed formal sciences such as logic, mathematics and philosophy of science, but still includes epistemology, cosmology and others.

Some philosophers specialize in one or more historical periods. The history of philosophy (study of a specific period, individual or school) is related to but not the same as the philosophy of history (the theoretical aspect of history, which deals with questions such as the nature of historical evidence and the possibility of objectivity).

Western philosophy is the philosophical tradition of the Western world..

The regions of the fertile CrescentIran and Arabia are home to the earliest known philosophical Wisdom literature and is today mostly dominated by Islamic culture. In Ancient Egypt, these texts were known as sebayt (‘teachings’) and they are central to our understandings of Ancient Egyptian philosophyBabylonian astronomy also included much philosophical speculations about cosmology which may have influenced the Ancient Greeks. Jewish philosophy and Christian philosophy are religion-philosophical traditions that developed both in the Middle East and in Europe; they both share certain early Judaic texts (mainly the Tanakh) and monotheistic beliefs.

Indian philosophy (Sanskritdarśana; ‘world views’, ‘teachings’) are philosophical traditions originating in the Indian subcontinent. Traditions of Indian philosophy are generally classified as either orthodox or heterodox – āstika or nāstika – depending on whether they accept the authority of the Vedas and whether they accept the theories of Brahman and Atman.[41][42] The orthodox schools generally include NyayaVaisheshikaSamkhyaYogaMīmāṃsā and Vedanta, and the common heterodox schools are JainBuddhistAjivika and Cārvāka. Some of the earliest surviving philosophical texts are the Upanishads of the later Vedic period (1000–500 BCE). Important Indian philosophical concepts include dharmakarmasamsaramoksha and ahimsa. Indian philosophers developed a system of epistemological reasoning (pramana) and logic and investigated topics such as metaphysics, ethics, hermeneutics and soteriology. Indian philosophy also covered topics such as political philosophy as seen in the Arthashastra ,4th century BCE and the philosophy of love as seen in the Kama Sutra.

Buddhist philosophy begins with the thought of Gautama Buddha (fl. between sixth and fourth centuries BCE) and is preserved in the early Buddhist texts. Buddhist thought is trans-regional and trans-cultural. It originated in India and later spread to East AsiaTibetCentral Asia, and Southeast Asia, developing new and syncretism traditions in these different regions.

East Asian philosophical thought began in Ancient China, and Chinese philosophy begins during the Western Zhou Dynasty and the following periods after its fall when the “Hundred Schools of Thought” flourished (6th century to 221 BC).This period was characterized by significant intellectual and cultural developments and saw the rise of the major philosophical schools of China, ConfucianismLegalism, and Daoism as well as numerous other less influential schools. These philosophical traditions developed metaphysical, political and ethical theories such TaoYin and yangRen and Li which, along with Chinese Buddhism..

philosophy is philosophy produced by African people, philosophy that presents African worldviews, ideas and themes, or philosophy that uses distinct African philosophical methods. Modern African thought has been occupied with Ethnophilosophy, with defining the very meaning of African philosophy and its unique characteristics and what it means to be African.

Indigenous American philosophy is the philosophy of the Indigenous people of the Americas. There is a wide variety of beliefs and traditions among these different American cultures. Among some of the Native Americans in the United States there is a belief in a metaphysical principle. 

Some of those who study philosophy become professional philosophers, typically by working as professors who teach research and write in academic institutions.

The ancient civilizations of EgyptGreeceChinaIndia, and Persia all engaged in the philosophical study of psychology. Historians note that Greek philosophers, including ThalesPlato, and Aristotle (especially in his De Anima treatise), addressed the workings of the mind.[15] As early as the 4th century BC, Greek physician Hippocrates theorized that mental disorders had physical rather than supernatural causes.

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